موقع دروس الباكالوريا الرسمي
  Writings for 2 bac
 

Writing


breast cancer

The concept of human rights has existed under several names inEuropean thought for many centuries at least since the time of king john ofEngland.
The political and religious tradition in order parts of the wordalso proclaimed what have come to be called human rights calling on rules torule justly and compassionately and delineating limits on theircitizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe severalphilosophers proposed the concept of rights belonging to person by natural andbecause ha was a human being not by virtue of his citizenship in a particularreligion or race or ethnic group.
In the late 1700, two revolutions occurred which drew heavily onthis concept in 1776, most of the British colonies in North America proclaimedtheir independence from the British Empire in document, which still stirsfeeling and debate.
Language
Language is obviously a vital tool not only is it a means ofcommunicating thoughts and ideas, but it forges friendship cultural ties andeconomic relationship.
Throughout history many have reflected on importance of languagefor instance language shapes thoughts and emotions , determining one’sperception of reality .language is not only a vehicle for the expression ofthoughts , perceptions , sentiments and values , It also represent ; afundamental expression of social identity .
Language of course is knowledge and in our world today, knowledgeis on the key factor in competitiveness.
Brains and knowledge are what create the prosperity and growth wetend to take for granted .In an advanced industrial society in an increasinglyinterdependent world the knowledge of other languages becomesindispensable.
In short, it’s very important to learn foreign languages butwithout forget your identity.
You inscribe to University
Dear madam; Date:
I am writing to ask about opportunities to study interpreting inyour university, I am Moroccan, aged 19, and I hop to pass my baccalaureate well .I want to become a Translator or interpreter in Arabic French and English , ifI obtain a place at this university , my uncle who lives in Las Vegas ,will paymy expenses.
My first language is Arabic, I have also French since the age of 9 , I speak it fluently , and I have a good reading and writing knowledge ofit.
My second foreign language is English, which I do not yet speakfluently, however. I can read it quite well and can write a certain amount . Ialso have a limited knowledge of Spanish.
I should be grateful if you would send me details of yourentrance equipments a copy of your prospectus and an application form.
Dropping from school
The fact that student drop off from school is a serious problemsthat hinders the progress of student first and then the level of nationaleducation .
Most of students who drop off from school are poor, they speaktheir incapability of supplying, their parents obliged them to drop off from andlook for a job to help the family .
Other reason may be attributed to the students indifference .those students who stop going to school are villagers because they don’t attendclasses doing some agricultural work instead.
Other ex-students attest that leaving school is not an idea thatcomes at random but as a reaction to the dissatisfaction resulted by those whohave attained their degrees but gained no work after .
The government must do some serious attempts so that students cankeep up with their studies no matter what circumstances are .Also it should setplan to improve the educational system to most attainable one that open mindsand doors
Immigration
Spanish officials estimate that about 1.000 people have downedattempting to enter Europe by crossing the 10-mile wide strait of Gibraltar inthe past six years , Spanish officials say that morocco is tolerating the exitof small boats .
In 1996. several hundred illegal immigrants .most Moroccans werepicked up by the police and coast guard on the southern shores of Spain , morocco’s newly appointed prime mister .Aberahmane youssoufi . blamed illegalimmigration on poverty , and said that policeman and walls are not solution tothe illegal migration ,which should be handed with realism in order to findhuman solutions .
On February, the interior ministers of morocco and Italy signed aconvention to cooperate in the fight against drug smuggling and illegalimmigration the Italian interior minister said that a lot of Moroccans livelegally in Italy .the largest foreign community in the country.
Hand in hand between Morocco and Italy to fight drugs , illegalimmigration .
Urbanization
Urbanization refers to a process in which an increasingproportion of entire population lives in cities and the suburbs of cities, thisphenomenon has been closely connected with industrialization .
By the end of this decade, more than half of the world’spopulation will live in cities making humanity a predominantly urban species forthe first time in Its history .
When more and more inanimate sources of energy were used in toenhance human productivity .surpluses increased economical fields
Such as industry. Then the larger and larger proportions ofpopulation could live in cities.
Economic forces were such that cities became the ideal places tolocate factories and their workers , urbanization is a serious problem that willspoil the natural world in due course .there will be no country-sides and nogreen places to feel the first endowed natural beauty of this world .
Life in the countryside
Many people believe that life in the countryside is mush betterthan in the city ,well they are wrong , living in the countryside is reallydifficult ,going out at night , for instance , is useless since there is nowhereto go to enjoy oneself, another thing is that when a person falls sick it isdifficult to find an ambulance to take him to the nearest hospital .anothermisconception is about pollution , the countryside is not wholly clean , the airwe breathe is not as fresh as people think ,many houses are not connected to themain sewage ,and do you know that many factories exist in many villages
Poverty
Poverty is becoming a serious problems for many countries , itaffects the whole society and delays the development of the country .
Poor families very often have health problems , because they havelot of children , parents are unable to provide medicine for them ,also theycant send them to school since schooling is expensive , they send them insteadto work and bring them money , so when members of society are unhealthy orilliterate this affect the development of the country .
Poverty is a serious problem, an enemy that government shouldfight by trying to make all members of society benefit from the resources oftheir country and work for its development.
Parents-children relationship
Parents-children relationship differ from one family to another. While some parents complain that their children don’t listen to them anymore, children on the other hand complain that their parents don’t understand them anylonger .
My relationship with my parents is a good one , I respect themand understand them, the allow me to choose my friends my cloths to travel aloneand to invite friends home, however , they are very strict when it comes to myhomework or staying late out late at night .
To have a good parents-relationship is very easy thing if bothparents and children make efforts to create such a kind of relationship.
Traffic problems
There are many dangers when driving in a big city , traffic jams, road rage, car jacking drive-by- shootings ,smash-and-grabs , accidents orpurpose ambulance chasers , corrupt police , touring ,companies that can grabyour car in ten seconds .the list goes on.
Traffic jams are caused by drivers who tailgate and try to drivefaster than the flow of traffic , when drivers merge at the last second , theyhave to step on their brakes , and that causes the tailgaters behind them tostep on their brakes , roads rage occurs when someone loses self-control , somedriver is going too fast , this causes a clash , there are many reasons behindthe traffic jams problem.
The latter can also be attributed to the road code, violation , speed and carelessness , other reasons such as natural factors are involved ,snow , obscurity, and rain are most of them , one other cause is the poorinfra-structure.

Understanding these very real dangers will help you learn how toavoid or prevent traffic problems .drivers should drive safely and learn tomaintain self-control , the driver should be a street-wise so that he can takethe necessaryprecautions.

Television
?
Television has became part of our every day life .what are its advantagesand disadvantages
On the one hand, TV has became the most influential meansof the mass media because it has both sound and picture .it's also the mostpopular source of information education and international , in brief TV bringsthe whole word to us.
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy viewers .it also prevents communication between the members of the family besidesstudents don't their homwork and may became aggressive when they watch films ofviolence.

war
WAR is one of the wost crime that pople have ever made to the humanity. that's why we should know why some ediot poeple can't stand leaving in peacebecuase
the best thing that can draw the smile on every one's face is thepeace. but in reality we have a deferent image to the world, we see that no onewant to respect the right of other or want's to enslave poeple or take thereweals, and they make some silly reasons to get what they want exactly like whathappend to
our brothers in iraq.
war also creat a very bad destarctionand ruin in everywhere.
and from the main point we can say that poepl instean of burning world they have to to learn how to leave in peace and creat thehappiness instead of hate andkilling.

Workingchildren

Child labour is one of the problems that many
 countries face, there
are various causes that drive children to work some of them drop out of schoolin order to help their poor or sick parents others have to work because they areorphans. In addiction some parents are ignorant they think education is a wasteof time.
Working children face a tough life; in factories and mines theywork in bad conditions no fresh air, long hours they may be injured by machinesthey are also deprived of education and childhood 

airpollution

air pollution can effect our health in many ways with a bothshort-term effects different groups of individuals are effected by air pollutionin different ways .some individualsare much more sensitive to pollutants thanare others. young children and elderly people after suffer môre from effects ofair pollution.poeple with health problems such asthma .heart and lung diseasemay olso suffer more when the air is poolluted the extent to wich in individualis harmed by air pollution usualy depends on the total to the damaging chimicalsi.e the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chimicals must betaken into account..this s the end of pragraph i wish to benefit itok

Humainrights
The concept of human rights has existed under several names inEuropean thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John ofEngland. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by whichEngland had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, orGreat Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of ashuman rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free fromgovernmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inheritproperty and be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widowswho owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of dueprocess and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbiddingbribery and official misconduct.
The political and religious traditions inother parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be called humanrights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and delineatinglimits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of theircitizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe severalphilosophers proposed the concept of "natural rights," rights belonging to aperson by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of hiscitizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious orethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by somephilosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlyingprinciple on which all ideas of citizens' rights and political and religiousliberty were based.
In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drewheavily on this concept. In 1776 most of the British colonies in North Americaproclaimed their independence from the British Empire in a document which stillstirs feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration ofIndependence

Business
In economics, business is the social science of managing people to organizeand maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creativeand productive goals, usually to generate profit.
The etymology of "business" refers to the state of being busy, in the context of the individual as well asthe community or society. In other words, to be busy is to be doing commerciallyviable and profitable work.
The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the general usage (above), the singular usage to referto a particular company or corporation, and the generalized usage to refer to aparticular market sector, such as "the record business," "the computerbusiness," or "the business community" -- the community of suppliers of goodsand services.
The singular "business" can be a legally-recognized entitywithin an economically free society, wherein individuals organize based onexpertise and skills to bring about social and technological advancement.
Inpredominantly capitalist economies, businesses are typically formed to earnprofit and grow the personal wealth of their owners.
The owners and operatorsof a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation ofa financial return in exchange for their work — that is, the expense of time andenergy — and for their acceptance of risk — investing work and money withoutcertainty of success.
Notable exceptions to this rule include some businesseswhich are cooperatives, or government institutions.
However, the exactdefinition of business is disputable as is business philosophy; for example, some Marxists use "means of production" as a rough synonym for "business"; however a more accurate definition of "means of production" would be theresources and apparatus by which products and services are created.
Controlof these resources and apparatus results in control of business activity, andso, while they are very closely related, they are not the samething.
Socialists advocate either government, public, or worker ownership ofmost sizable businesses. Some advocate a mixed economy of private andstate-owned enterprises. Others advocate a capitalist economy where all, ornearly all, enterprises are privately owned.
Business Studies is taught as asubject in manyschools

smoking
When your parents were young, people could buy cigarettes and smokepretty much anywhere - even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over theplace. Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for our health. Smokingis restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies areno longer allowed to advertise on buses or trains, billboards, TV, and in manymagazines.
Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, andheart disease; that it can shorten your life by 14 years or more; and that thehabit can cost a smoker thousands of dollars a year. So how come people arestill lightingup!

naturaldisaster
A is the consequence of when a potential natural hazard becomesa physical event (e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide) and thisinteracts with human activities. Human vulnerability, caused by the lack ofplanning, lack of appropriate emergency management or the event beingunexpected, leads to financial, structural, and human losses. The resulting lossdepends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their resilience.[1] This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability".[2] A natural hazard willhence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently beendisputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without humaninvolvement

Globalization
Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration andinterdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, andecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and is perhaps bestunderstood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such asenhanced economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advancesof information technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into oneglobal system.
There are several definitions and all usually mention theincreasing connectivity of economies and ways of life across the world. TheEncyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the "process by which theexperience of everyday life ... is becoming standardized around the world." While some scholars and observers of globalization stress convergence ofpatterns of production and consumption and a resulting homogenization ofculture, others stress that globalization has the potential to take many diverseforms.

Advertinsing
One the hand advertising makes consumers aware, of the new products on themarket and helps them spend their money wisely it also as creates many jobs .
On the other hand advertising makes people feel frustrated, if they can'tafford the products .it also increases the prise of goods what's more it urgesconsumers to buy unnecessary commodities .

cinema
For the first twenty years of motion picture history most silent films wereshort--only a few minutes in length. At first a novelty, and then increasinglyan art form and literary form, silent films reached greater complexity andlength in the early 1910's. The films on the list above represent the greatestachievements of the silent era, which ended--after years of experimentation--in 1929 when a means of recording sound that would be synchronous with the recordedimage was discovered. Few silent films were made in the 1930s, with theexception of Charlie Chaplin, whose character of the Tramp perfected expressivephysical moves in many short films in the 1910's and 1920s. When the silent eraended, Chaplin refused to go along with sound; instead, he maintained themelodramatic Tramp as his mainstay in City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936). The trademarks of Chaplin's Tramp were his ill-fitting suit, floppyover-sized shoes and a bowler hat, and his ever-present cane. A memorable imageis Chaplin's Tramp shuffling off, penguin-like, into the sunset and spinning hiscane whimsically as he exits. He represented the "little guy," the underdog, someone who used wit and whimsy to defeat his adversaries.
Eisenstein'scontribution to the development of cinema rested primarily in his theory ofediting, or montage, which focused on the collision of opposites in order tocreate a new entity. One of the greatest achievements in editing is the OdessaSteps sequence, in his film Potemkin (1925). Eisenstein intercut between shotsof townspeople trapped on the steps by Czarist troops, and shots of the troopsfiring down upon the crowd. Members of the crowd became individual characters toviewers as the montage continued. Within the editing track the fate of theseindividuals was played out. A mother picks up her dead child and confronts thetroops. Then she is shot. A student looks on in terror and then flees--his fateuncertain. An old woman prays to be spared, but she is killed by a soldier whoslashes her face with his saber. When a woman holding her baby carriage iskilled, she falls to the steps, and the carriage begins a precipitousdecline--shots of the baby crying are intercut with wide shots of the carriagerolling down the steps. To Eisenstein, each individual shot contributed anenergy within the editing track that yielded far more than the sum total ofshots. In other words, the "combination" of shots through editing created a newentity, based on the expressive emotional energy unleashed through the editingprocess.

Emmigration
Morocco recently saw a migration of the population of cities and villages meespecially in the last 50 years that happened Leone Morocco for independence. What are the reasons that drive housing villages to migrate to cities? And whatare the causes of migrations out of the negative impact?
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There is a rangeof reasons why the villagers to the cities Tahgerh me among them lack even themost basic means necessary hospitals and transportation means Finding workMestekareaulthossein circumstances of living .................. ect . The resulteased the congestion entire towns and neighborhoods Baladi shanties and Taherabegging and the use of young children Resulting from the whole circumcisioneased some tragic scenes
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Finally, I wish to state that changed everythingin their power to stop the advance of the pious and out of control thesituation

education
Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and alsosomething less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, goodjudgement and wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental goals theimparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education means 'to draw out', facilitating realisation of self-potential andlatent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body oftheoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws onmany disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.
The education of an individualhuman begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe thateducation begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing musicor reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child'sdevelopment.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide farmore instruction than does formal schooling (thus Albert Einstein's admonitionto "never let school interfere with your education"). Family members may have aprofound educational effect — often more profound than they realize — thoughfamily teaching may function very informally

Terrorism
Terrorism is a term used to describe violence or other harmful acts. Terrorism expert Walter Laqueur in 1999 has counted over 100 definitions andconcludes that the "only general characteristic generally agreed upon is thatterrorism involves violence and the threat of violence". Most definitions ofterrorism include only those acts which are intended to create fear or "terror", are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a "madman" attack), anddeliberately target "non-combatants".
As a form of unconventional warfare, terrorism is sometimes used when attempting to force political change by: convincing a government or population to agree to demands to avoid future harmor fear of harm, destabilization of an existing government, motivating adisgruntled population to join an uprising, escalating a conflict in the hopesof disrupting the status quo, expressing a grievance, or drawing attention to acause.
The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages interrorism) carry a strong negative connotation. These terms are often used aspolitical labels to condemn violence or threat of violence by certain actors asimmoral, indiscriminate, or unjustified. Those labeled "terrorists" rarelyidentify themselves as such, and typically use other generic terms or termsspecific to their situation, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi ormujaheddin, or fedayeen, or any similar-meaning word in otherlanguages.
Terrorism has been used by a broad array of politicalorganizations in furthering their objectives; both right-wing and left-wingpolitical parties, nationalistic, and religious groups, revolutionaries andruling governments.[1] The presence of non-state actors in widespread armedconflict has created controversy regarding the application of the laws ofwar.
An International Roundtable on Constructing Peace, Deconstructing Terror (2004) hosted by Strategic Foresight Group recommended that a distinction shouldbe made between terrorism and acts of terror. While acts of terror are criminalacts as per the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 and domesticjurisprudence of almost all countries in the world, terrorism refers to aphenomenon including acts, perpetrators of acts of terror and motives of theperpetrators. There is a disagreement on definition of terrorism. However, thereis an intellectual consensus globally that acts of terror should not be acceptedunder any circumstances. This is reflected in all important conventionsincluding the United Nations counter terrorism strategy, outcome of the MadridConference on terrorism and outcome of the Strategic Foresight Group and ALDEroundtables at the EuropeanParliament

Leisuretime
Recreation is very important for one health whoever we are we needleisure activities because they enable us our minds and bodies
If we go onworking without a break we'll get bord and exchasted
Therfore we should spendour free time on the things we like doing much as listing to music and pratisingsport in this way we'll have energy to rasume our studies and warking
OK sanyI PPRESENT TO YOU THIS OBJECT OF THE HOW CAN AIR POLLUTION HURT MY HEALTH
airpollution can effect our health in many ways with a both short-term effectsdifferent groups of individuals are effected by air pollution in different ways .some individualsare much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. youngchildren and elderly people after suffer môre from effects of airpollution.poeple with health problems such asthma .heart and lung disease mayolso suffer more when the air is poolluted the extent to wich in individual isharmed by air pollution usualy depends on the total to the damaging chimicalsi.e the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chimicals must betaken into account..this s the end of pragraph i wish to benefit itok

Racism
Racism or racialism is a form of race, especially the belief that one raceis superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races.
In the 19thcentury many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through scientifictheories about biological differences among races. Today, most scientists haverejected the biological basis of race or the validity of "race" as a scientificconcept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination based on alleged race. Raciststhemselves usually do believe that humans are divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states thatracism is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other - newer - one statesthat racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion orculture

womenworking
There have been a lot of chages in our social life in the lastdecades .many more women working ,of course ,has the lifestyle of manyfamilies
Many people are worried whether a carrer women can properly care forthe children the advantage of women working
women and men are equal andshould also have the right have a job
women should hlep in the devlopment oftheircountry
carrer mot her are usually educated and so can help theirfamily
the disadvantage of carrer women : women find ut difficult to takevery good care of children while working out side they usually nturn home tiredoften a day 's work outside the also have to deal with the house work the areleft with litter time to care for their childern .
thes affect a lot thewhole family ,and may cause problems for children at schol ....e bc.
.
finallyi say that at taking good care children of women /mothers alonne
man/fathershould also share this responsibility with their wives
life is getting veryexpensive and women to help theirfamily

Adrought
A drought is a prolonged, abnormally dry period whenthere is notenough water for users' normal needs. Drought is not simply low rainfall; if itwas, much of inland Australia would be in almost perpetual drought. Becausepeople use water in so many different ways, there is no universal definition ofdrought.
Meteorologists monitor the extent and severity of drought in termsof rainfall deficiencies. Agriculturalists rate the impact on primaryindustries, hydrologists compare ground water levels, and sociologists define iton social expectations andperceptions

tv
nowdays .TV viewers have a wide choice of channels .more and more peoplehave got satellite TV not all of them are satisfied with it .
satellite TVhas both advantages and drawbaks . whats is de advantages and drawbaks ofTV,?
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satellite TV brings the whole world into your home there a variety ofprogrammes to choose fromit helps people improve foreigs languages and there arelots of entertaining ...educating programmes. You may not feel bored.
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andthe drawbaks of satellite TV :
People spend too mush time watching TV andthey become passive and lazy there are too many channels and it is oftendificulet to choose the right programme and the people watch foreign TV channelsand not their national TV .
Thy don't know what is happening in their country ,they might forget about their own culture and problem
Children don't dotheir homework ,don't read enough .
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satellite TV like any other technologyis means to an end people should be selective and watch interesting programmesonly.

Families
It's not necessarily a fact that small families are the best, but the factthat raising just one child is extremely expensive. There is the hospital bill, one must have good medical/dental (very expensive) for those toothaches, possible braces, fevers, scrapes, childhood diseases, not to mention the manyshots children get during their younger years. There is clothing, food, a goodhome to live in, education and other hidden costs. Your child is better adjustedif they (a boy) are put into a sport at the age of 5 or 6, or if it's a girl, into dancing, etc., to keeping them off the streets and also give them insightas to what the future can hold for them. It costs many thousands of dollars toraise one child, and I use to know the stats on it, but it has since changed.
If a family can afford more than 2 children (good to have sibling) then theyshould go for it. I have known families during the 50s to 70s where there were 5 - 8 kids in a family and they were all well adjusted kids, not to mention theoldest child always ends up helping mom and pop out. Large families can be fun, but if you can't afford it this can cause a great deal of pressure on theparents and either shorten their life span or end in divorce. To have a largefamily you have to be wellorganized

Languages
A language is a system used to facilitate communication among higher animalsand/or computers. This article is about the fundamental features typically foundin nearly all natural human languages. For information about artificiallanguages specifically for computers, please see instead machine code. Higheranimals believed to employ audible language only, without symbols, include, butare not limited to, dolphins and whales. For information about this subject, please see "Animal communication" instead


Minorities
A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does notconstitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a givensociety. A sociological minority is not necessarily a numerical minority — itmay include any group that is disadvantaged with respect to a dominant group interms of social status, education, employment, wealth and political power. Toavoid confusion, some writers prefer the terms "subordinate group" and "dominantgroup" rather than "minority" and "majority".

In socioeconomics, the term "minority" typically refers to a socially subordinate ethnic group (understoodin terms of language, nationality, religion and/or culture). Other minoritygroups include people with disabilities, "economic minorities" (working poor orunemployed), "age minorities" (who are younger or older than a typical workingage) and sexual minorities (whose sexual orientation or gender identity differsfrom the sociological norm).
The term "minority group" often occurs alongsidea discourse of civil rights and collective rights which gained prominence in the 20th century. Members of minority groups are subject to differential treatmentin the society in which they live. This discrimination may be directly based onan individual's perceived membership of a minority group, without considerationof that individual's personal achievement. It may also occur indirectly, due tosocial structures that are not equally accessible to all. Activists campaigningon a range of issues may use the language of minority rights, including studentrights, consumer rights and animal rights. In recent years, some members ofsocial groups traditionally perceived as dominant have attempted to presentthemselves as an oppressed minority, such as white, middle-class heterosexualmales.
Studies have consistently shown a correlation between negativeattitudes or prejudice toward minorities and social conservatism (as well as theconverse, positive attitutes and social progressivism).[2] Minority groups inhistory, include Jews under Nazi Germany and African Americans in the Jim Crowperiod

English
World science is dominated today by a small number of languages, but Englishwhich is probably is the most popular global language of science and of moderntechnology that because many reason: first it is international language and themajority of country used it as their home language, In addition to that you canunderstand what happen in the world, in the other hand you can understand thenew technology, moreover we see that the people that speak more than twolanguage have a chance to get a better job than the other people who can speakjust one. And also it is very important to student who want finish their Hightstudy in university.
Finally English will become more important in the futureand more using in all things
 
Leiure
. What i do in my free time ? Well, i like to exercise and sports, especially Karate. Just the same, i like to watch a football match or a goodfilm sometimes.
Music- now that`s somethingi like as much as sport. I veryoften listen to music on the radio.but what i lke best is reading books onbiology,chemistry and physics. These are my favourite subjects at school.whatabout friends? Ilike to be with them on Saturday

racism
Racism or racialism is a form of race, especially the belief that one raceis superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races..
In the 19thcentury many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through scientifictheories about biological differences among races. Today, most scientists haverejected the biological basis of race or the validity of "race" as a scientificconcept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination basedon alleged race. Raciststhemselves usually do believe that humans are divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states thatracism is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other - newer - one statesthat racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion orculture

2-women
Millions of women throughout the world live in conditions of abjectdeprivation of, and attacks against, their fundamental human rights for no otherreason than that they are women.
Combatants and their sympathizers inconflicts, such as those in Sierra Leone, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic ofCongo, Afghanistan, and Rwanda, have raped women as a weapon of war with nearcomplete impunity. Men in Pakistan, South Africa, Peru, Russia, and Uzbekistanbeat women in the home at astounding rates, while these governmentsalternatively refuse to intervene to protect women and punish their batterers ordo so haphazardly and in ways that make women feel culpable for the violence. Asa direct result of inequalities found in their countries of origin, women fromUkraine, Moldova, Nigeria, the Dominican Republic, Burma, and Thailand arebought and sold, trafficked to work in forced prostitution, with insufficientgovernment attention to protect their rights and punish the traffickers. InGuatemala, South Africa, and Mexico, women's ability to enter and remain in thework force is obstructed by private employers who use women's reproductivestatus to exclude them from work and by discriminatory employment laws ordiscriminatory enforcement of the law. In the U.S., students discriminateagainst and attack girls in school who are lesbian, bi-sexual, or transgendered, or do not conform to male standards of female behavior. Women in Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia face government-sponsored discrimination thatrenders them unequal before the law - including discriminatory family codes thattake away women's legal authority and place it in the hands of male familymembers - and restricts women's participation in public life
 
internet
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network ofinterconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching usingthe standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consistsof millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents ofthe world wide web.
The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States tocreate the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 toregain a technological lead.[1][2] ARPA created the Information ProcessingTechnology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic GroundEnvironment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systemstogether for the first time. J

Science, and technology 

The distinction between science, and technology is not always clear. Science is the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method. Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety.
Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference .

Cultural values 

Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. The values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is, valuable. In the United States, for example, values might include material comfort, wealth, competition, individualism or religiosity. The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. In the US, for example, professional athletes are more highly honored than college professors, in part because the society values physical activity and competitiveness more than mental activity and education. Surveys show that voters in the United States would be reluctant to elect an atheist as a president, suggesting that belief in God is a value.
Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more general and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or bad. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family.
Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to.
If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its members. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that have been established as law. 

 
Synopsis: 

International migration, the movement of people across international boundaries, has enormous economic, social and cultural implications in both origin and destination countries. Using original research, this title examines the determinants of migration, the impact of remittances and migration on poverty, welfare, and investment decisions, and the consequences of brain drain, brain gain, and brain waste.

citizen right 

1. Every person has the right to have his or her affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a
reasonable time by the institutions and bodies of the Union.
2. This right includes:
• the right of every person to be heard, before any individual measure which would affect him or her adversely is taken;
• the right of every person to have access to his or her file, while respecting the legitimate interests of confidentiality and of professional and business secrecy;
• the obligation of the administration to give reasons for its decisions.
3. Every person has the right to have the Community make good any damage caused by its institutions or by its servants in the performance of their duties, in accordance with the general principles common to the laws of the Member States.
4. Every person may write to the institutions of the Union in one of the languages of the Treaties and must have an answer in the same language. 

humor 

I think that the best things to relief from stress is to watch some sitcoms or hear something funny like jokes …person should develop his sense of humor and he should be cool , Comic and optimistic, because some expert of mental. health have noted that we can't imagine going through a day without laughter.
Humor will make every part of your life better.
It will help you trough difficult times and it will help you make the good times even letter, also i twill attract good people and good situations to you. So cheer up .
drop out of school
Increasing stress in school, at work, and at home has caused many students to drop out of school to escape their problems.
With this increasing amount of stress and work, some students have become very frustrated and depressed. Students then drop out of school and take the easy way out to eliminate some of that stress.
Students who are most likely to drop out of school are those who do not have a great interest in school, or students that have many adult responsibilities placed upon them. These problems can force some students into the work force. They do this both to provide money for themselves and to fill the gap that was once school.
Students in high school do not have to deal with these problems alone. There are guidance counsellors to talk to, as well as close friends and teachers to prevent certain students from.

dropping out of school. 

Most students that have dropped out of school usually regret it after awhile. Margaret D., a student at G.V.C., regrets that she ever dropped out of school. Although she enjoyed being out of school, she realized she would regret it for the rest of her life. Margaret D. says, "I wasted a year of my life".
Dealing with the stress and staying in school is generally worth it later on in life.



Are tourists good for a country


This question can be looked from several points of view. Firstly, tourism should be considered in relation to a country’s economy. Secondly it can be seen in terms of its effects on the countryside and environment. Thirdly, the influence of the tourist industry on culture must be taken into account.
T he economy of a country often benefits as a result of tourism; foreign visitors come and spend their money, and this creates jobs for those who run hotels and restaurants. However, there are also certain drawbacks. Whereas the people directly involved in the industry may benefit, other may find that they are worse off. This is because the cost of living goes up and goods become more expensive since tourists are prepared to pay more for them.
A s far as the effect on the environment is concerned, tourism is often a bad thing. While it is true to say that development results in better roads being built and improvements for poorer areas, it is sometimes very harmful. In some countries, huge hotels and skyscrapers have ruined areas of unspoilt beauty.
T he cultural influence of tourism is difficult to measure. In some countries foreign influence can destroy the local way of life. On the other hand, countries which do not encourage tourism may miss the benefits that foreign technology and investment can bring.
I n conclusion, it can be seen that tourism has both advantages and disadvantages; if it is controlled properly, it can be good for a country, but there will always be a danger that it may do a great deal of harm.



Immigration to the USA


Twenty seven million white immigrants entered the United States between 1880 and 1924. Two thirds of these so-called new immigrants came from different parts of Europe that were economically underdeveloped. In the first decade of the 20 th century, about six million immigrants arrived from Russia, Austria, Hungary and Italy. They were drawn by the flourishing manufacturing sector of the economy. They not only brought their labour force but also their skills that were vital to industries such as construction and textile. Nevertheless, their customs and culture struck native-born, Americans who considered them as impossible to assimilate.
That phenomenon did not last forever. With the end of the colonial empires in the fifties and sixties and emergence of independent Asian and African countries, a new law was voted: The 1964 Hart-Cellar Act. This law gave equal access to Asians, Africans, Latin-Americans and Europeans. Since then, over eight million legal immigrants have entered the United Stated, about half of them from the Third World.
The new immigrants are likely to change the composition of the American population. Some demographers predict that by 2030, American and Europeans roots will not be a majority. Even the dominance of the English language is seen as uncertain. The problem is whether the diversity of origins will continue to maintain American Society as united as it has been so far.



Racism


Turkish children playing in a muddy courtyard; faces of Vietnamese girls pressed against the windows of dirty barracks; security guards with their guns standing near the fences. This is an area in Cottbus, an industrial town in Germany that the police are trying to protect. It looks more like a prison than a refuge for immigrants who are more and more exposed to the violence of racist groups, like the skinheads.
E arlier this month, gangs of lawless German youths began attacking Vietnamese, Turkish and African labourers, so the authorities have rushed the victims to such places like Cottbus. Indeed, a wave of anti-immigrant violence is sweeping Germany. Every day brings some new spectacle of terror.
L uckily the violence is limited to small uncontrolled groups. Most Germans are outraged at those racist gangs and refer to them as criminals and delinquents looking for fun. Thousands of Germans have marched in Berlin and other cities to protest against racism.
H owever, foreign workers in Germany still fear for their lives and their families and do not feel totally secure. Some are thinking of going back to their native countries.


 

Americans


Among the reasons why immigrants have traditionally come to the USA is to have a better life – that is to raise their standard of living. It was properly the most important reason for leaving their homeland. Because of its abundant natural resources, the United States appeared to be a “land of plenty” where millions could come to seek their fortunes. Of course, most immigrants “didn’t get overnight” and many of them suffered terribly, but the majority of them were eventually able to improve their former standard of living.
Americans pay a price, however, for their material wealth: hard work. Hard work has been both necessary and rewarding for most Americans throughout their history. Because of this, they have come to see material possessions as the natural reward for their hard work. In some ways, material possessions are seen not only as a clear evidence of people’s work, but also of their abilities. Most Americans believe that if people work hard, they are likely to have a good standard of living.
S ince people’s status in society is frequently measured by how much they own, Americans often feel pressured to buy more than they need. They want to appear as prosperous as everyone else round them, and this means making a continuing effort to buy newer and better material.
I n reality, some people have a better chance for success than others. Those who are born into rich families have more opportunities than those who are born in poorer families. Inheriting money gives a person a real advantage. In spite of laws designed to promote equality of opportunity for all races, many black Americans have fewer opportunities than the average white Americans.

 

Old at tewenty


The story of women in sports is like the story of women in many other activities. First they were ignored, and then gradually became accepted. Now they are just taken for granted as part of any sporting events.
T ake gymnastics, for instance. When women first took part in the Olympic Games in 1928, they were not allowed to do gymnastics. Women’s gymnastics was then thought ‘indecent’.
T he first woman to attract attention to this sport was a Russian girl called Olga Korbut. In the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich she amazed everybody and won a gold medal. The next girl who surprised the whole sporting world was the Romanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci. In the 1976 Olympic Games she won the overall title. She was then 14. Girls’ popularity in this sport was here to stay.
H owever, if these girls get glory at such an early, they pay for it. They work hard. What’s more, they give their lives, quite often from the age of seven, to the sport. They are considered ‘old’ at the age of twenty.
P erhaps you are wondering what they do when they ‘retire’. For some, fame continues. Olga Korbut, for instance, became a film star and married a Rock musician. Others fall back into obscurity and have to adapt to a new way of life.
W hen asked in an interview whether she regretted her career, Nelli Kim, an ‘old’ gymnast answered, “No. For the rest of your life you always remember the wonderful sensation of flying through the air, after a good routine on the bars. It really is a moment of perfection.”

 



Pollution


Many cities around the world today are heavily polluted. Careless manufacturing methods employed by some industries and absence of consumer demand for environmentally safe products have been behind the pollution problem. One result is that millions of tons of glass, paper, plastic and metal containers are produced, and these are difficult to dispose of.
However, today more and more consumers are choosing ‘green’ and demanding that the products they buy are safe for the environment. Before they buy a product, they ask questions like these, Will this product damage the ozone layer?, Is this package of any danger to the environment? Or Can this metal container be used once?
A recent study showed that two out of five adults now consider the
Environmental safety of a product before they buy it. This means that companies must now change the way they make and sell their products to make sure that they are ‘green’, that is, friendly to the environment.
Only a few years ago, it was impossible to find green products in supermarkets, but now there are hundreds. Some supermarket products have tickets on them to show that the product is green. Some companies have made the manufacturing of clean and safe products their main selling point and insist on it in their advertising.
The concern of a safer and cleaner environment is making companies rethink how they do business. The public will no longer accept the old attitude of Buy it, Use it and then Throw it away.

 



Rubbish


D isposing of the rubbish we produce every day is a major problem in cities around the world. In Britain, 85% of waste is disposed by landfill, a system which is supposed to prevent pollution, since waste is buried in the ground. This method is far from perfect; however, finding new areas is becoming difficult. Recycling is an increasingly popular way of getting rid of waste, and in Britain a target of recycling half of all domestic recyclable waste has been set for the coming years.
A city that has solved its waste disposal problem in an unusual way is Machida, in Japan. They have developed a totally new approach to waste disposal. The key to the operation is public co-operation. Families must divide their rubbish into six categories.
rubbish that can be easily burnt (combustible), such as kitchen and garden waste.
non-combustible rubbish such as small electric appliances, plastic tools and plastic toys.
products that are toxic or that cause pollution, such as batteries.
bottles and glass containers that can be recycled.
metal containers that can be recycled.
large items such as furniture and bicycles.
T he items in categories 1-5 are collected on different days; (large items are only collected on request.) Then the rubbish is taken to a centre that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside, special equipment is used to sort and process the waste. Almost everything can be reused. Kitchen or garden waste becomes fertilizer; combustible items are burnt to produce electricity; metal containers and bottles are recycled and old furniture, clothing and other useful items are cleaned, repaired and resold cheaply or given away. The work provides employment for disabled people and gives them a chance to learn new skills.
N owadays, officials from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own waste disposal problems.


The Human Development


The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living for countries worldwide. It is a standard means of measuring well-being, especially child welfare. It is used to determine and indicate whether a country is a developed, developing, or underdeveloped country and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life.[1] The index was developed in 1990 by Indian Nobel prize winner Amartya Sen, Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Lord Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics and has been used since then by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report. Described by Amartya Sen as a "vulgar measure", because of its limitations, it nonetheless focuses attention on aspects of development more sensible and useful than the per capita income measure it supplanted, and is a pathway for serious researchers into the wide variety of more detailed measures contained in the Human Development Reports.The HDI measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development:
A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth.Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weight).A decent standard of living, as measured by the log of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) in USD.Each year, UN member states are listed and ranked according to these measures. Those high on the list often advertise it (e.g., Jean Chrétien, Former Prime Minister of Canada [1]), as a means of attracting talented immigrants (economically, individual capital)


 


Rap in Morocco


Known Arab societies .. great social transformations of the way to dress, language and music minor, the latter known for a profound transformation in the structure here in Morocco. Years ago there was Umm Kulthum and sisters in the Middle and "Beatles" and the other in the west .. And no one heard something called "Rabbi" .. And now each city task by the way has turned into a "comfort dance" and "Hip Hop." "Allah Kaen" months a bridge in Morocco, started from Meknes and then to the rest of the cities .. If followed a march this group since incorporation, we find that it began - eg other teams - singing vocabulary "Albdaeh" .. and the market talk, but after that started and appeared on the television market and publicity, turned to singing, "sharply less" .. Loser "His tongue Alsulait also describes himself, no one is safe from the" Staemah ".. by the government to the parliament .. to .. Islamists to others is not known. People say that they want to live and have a family of "Rabbi", and that he is not afraid and does not acquit anyone .. and songs that can not hear in the "House" oversupplied Albdaeh .. vary between talk the curriculum vitae .. and love for his country .. and an affront to its enemies .. and of course the ever-present talk begin. It is noted that the last Owl "west of death" or "Moroccans to death became a trademark task in Morocco .. "Losers" to defend himself after facing charges of using words begin : "that convey the pulse of the street .. and that something will come from Him." , Considers itself the representative of the song of youth and finds that the future of "bridge" .. A few months ago, Moroccan officials : "Rabbi is the future of Moroccan song," saying this was a storm of opposition from those who are still Etarbon songs "languages" and regarded Rabbi outsider Ttaghavina .. and "incompatible with morality." Rabbi entered politics from the door wide : months before hosting Youth Socialist Union Party in Morocco Magti Rabbi Tawfiq Hazb known "Balkhasr" so Yahya evening attended by senior officials of the party : with songs that contain insults and dictionary "under the belt". Opponents of the party said that the Socialist Union "exploited rap to attract young people after its failed to do so." Professor Abdul Ghani Mendip professor of sociology at the University of Mohammad Alhams is that of Rabbi "comes within the framework of social transformation which Arafa Morocco." Hence, we must Ntani in sentencing and study the issue in a scientific and rational use away from the emotions. And among the finds that the phenomenon of Rabbi alien Ttaghavina and therefore must be cured .. zeolite, and the shift from the view that natural community .. And among the finds that the Rabbi is the future .. and the song of Moroccan considers summer cloud will pass soon ... Among all those views we have the right to ask : Does the fact created alternatives for youth to Governance.

Globalization

Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, and ecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and is perhaps best understood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such as enhanced economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advances of information technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into one global system.
There are several definitions and all usually mention the increasing connectivity of economies and ways of life across the world. The Encyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the "process by which the experience of everyday life ... is becoming standardized around the world." While some scholars and observers of globalization stress convergence of patterns of production and consumption and a resulting homogenization of culture, others stress that globalization has the potential to take many diverse forms.




Right of women


Nowadays we take it for
granted that women have the same rights as men before the first world war few people believed this.
As far as work was concerned there were jobs wich were regarded as women`s jobs and other wiche were regarded as men`s jobs. Women`s jobs were generally lower paid as men`s. Men did almost all the heavy jobs in industry or in transport.
Women had jobs like dress-making,cleanning or worked as servants.
Women`s main role was as being to raise childeren and look for their home. Women were not expected to take position of leaderschip. Women were not even allowed to vote in elections.
Before the war some women had been struggling to achieve greater equality with men. The most famous of these had been the suffragettes who stagged a violent campaign against the govervment from 1905 to 1914 trying to achieve the right to vote.however, at the outbreak of war, the were still no near to success. Many men argued that women were unsuited to such responsibility that women could not be trusted to vote sensibly that women should not concern themselves with such male activities and voting.
During the war many things changed .




Television


Television has became part of our every day life .what are its advantages and disadvantages
On the one hand, TV has became the most influential means of the mass media because it has both sound and picture .it's also the most popular source of information education and international , in brief TV brings the whole word to us.
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy viewers .it also prevents communication between the members of the family besides students don't their homwork and may became aggressive when they watch films of violence.




War


WAR is one of the wost crime that pople have ever made to the humanity. that's why we should know why some ediot poeple can't stand leaving in peace becuase
the best thing that can draw the smile on every one's face is the peace. but in reality we have a deferent image to the world, we see that no one want to respect the right of other or want's to enslave poeple or take there weals, and they make some silly reasons to get what they want exactly like what happend to
our brothers in iraq.
war also creat a very bad destarction and ruin in everywhere.
and from the main point we can say that poepl in stean of burning world they have to to learn how to leave in peace and creat the happiness instead of hate and killing.




Working children


Child labour is one of the problems that many countries face, there are various causes that drive children to work some of them drop out of school in order to help their poor or sick parents others have to work because they are orphans. In addiction some parents are ignorant they think education is a waste of time.
Working children face a tough life; in factories and mines they work in bad conditions no fresh air, long hours they may be injured by machines they are also deprived of education and childhood .




Air pollution


air pollution can effect our health in many ways with a both short-term effects different groups of individuals are effected by air pollution in different ways .some individualsare much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. young children and elderly people after suffer môre from effects of air pollution.poeple with health problems such asthma .heart and lung disease may olso suffer more when the air is poolluted the extent to wich in individual is harmed by air pollution usualy depends on the total to the damaging chimicals i.e the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chimicals must be taken into account..this s the end of pragraph i wish to benefit it ok .

 


Humain rights


The concept of human rights has existed under several names in European thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John of England. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct.
The political and religious traditions in other parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be called human rights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and delineating limits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of their citizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe several philosophers proposed the concept of "natural rights," rights belonging to a person by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of his citizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious or ethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by some philosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlying principle on which all ideas of citizens' rights and political and religious liberty were based.
In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drew heavily on this concept. In 1776 most of the British colonies in North America proclaimed their independence from the British Empire in a document which still stirs feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration of Independence .




Business


In economics, business is the social science of managing people to organize and maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creative and productive goals, usually to generate profit.
The etymology of "business" refers to the state of being busy, in the context of the individual as well as the community or society. In other words, to be busy is to be doing commercially viable and profitable work.
The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the general usage (above), the singular usage to refer to a particular company or corporation, and the generalized usage to refer to a particular market sector, such as "the record business," "the computer business," or "the business community" -- the community of suppliers of goods and services.
The singular "business" can be a legally-recognized entity within an economically free society, wherein individuals organize based on expertise and skills to bring about social and technological advancement.
In predominantly capitalist economies, businesses are typically formed to earn profit and grow the personal wealth of their owners.
The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation of a financial return in exchange for their work — that is, the expense of time and energy — and for their acceptance of risk — investing work and money without certainty of success.
Notable exceptions to this rule include some businesses which are cooperatives, or government institutions.
However, the exact definition of business is disputable as is business philosophy; for example, some Marxists use "means of production" as a rough synonym for "business"; however a more accurate definition of "means of production" would be the resources and apparatus by which products and services are created.
Control of these resources and apparatus results in control of business activity, and so, while they are very closely related, they are not the same thing.
Socialists advocate either government, public, or worker ownership of most sizable businesses. Some advocate a mixed economy of private and state-owned enterprises. Others advocate a capitalist economy where all, or nearly all, enterprises are privately owned.
Business Studies is taught as a subject in many schools .




Smoking

When your parents were young, people could buy cigarettes and smoke pretty much anywhere - even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over the place. Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for our health. Smoking is restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies are no longer allowed to advertise on buses or trains, billboards, TV, and in many magazines.
Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, and heart disease; that it can shorten your life by 14 years or more; and that the habit can cost a smoker thousands of dollars a year. So how come people are still lighting up!.




Natural disaster

A is the consequence of when a potential natural hazard becomes a physical event (e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide) and this interacts with human activities. Human vulnerability, caused by the lack of planning, lack of appropriate emergency management or the event being unexpected, leads to financial, structural, and human losses. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their resilience.[1] This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability".[2] A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement .



Advertinsing


One the hand advertising makes consumers aware, of the new products on the market and helps them spend their money wisely it also as creates many jobs .
On the other hand advertising makes people feel frustrated, if they can't afford the products .it also increases the prise of goods what's more it urges consumers to buy unnecessary commodities .




Cinema


For the first twenty years of motion picture history most silent films were short--only a few minutes in length. At first a novelty, and then increasingly an art form and literary form, silent films reached greater complexity and length in the early 1910's. The films on the list above represent the greatest achievements of the silent era, which ended--after years of experimentation--in 1929 when a means of recording sound that would be synchronous with the recorded image was discovered. Few silent films were made in the 1930s, with the exception of Charlie Chaplin, whose character of the Tramp perfected expressive physical moves in many short films in the 1910's and 1920s. When the silent era ended, Chaplin refused to go along with sound; instead, he maintained the melodramatic Tramp as his mainstay in City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936). The trademarks of Chaplin's Tramp were his ill-fitting suit, floppy over-sized shoes and a bowler hat, and his ever-present cane. A memorable image is Chaplin's Tramp shuffling off, penguin-like, into the sunset and spinning his cane whimsically as he exits. He represented the "little guy," the underdog, someone who used wit and whimsy to defeat his adversaries.
Eisenstein's contribution to the development of cinema rested primarily in his theory of editing, or montage, which focused on the collision of opposites in order to create a new entity. One of the greatest achievements in editing is the Odessa Steps sequence, in his film Potemkin (1925). Eisenstein intercut between shots of townspeople trapped on the steps by Czarist troops, and shots of the troops firing down upon the crowd. Members of the crowd became individual characters to viewers as the montage continued. Within the editing track the fate of these individuals was played out. A mother picks up her dead child and confronts the troops. Then she is shot. A student looks on in terror and then flees--his fate uncertain. An old woman prays to be spared, but she is killed by a soldier who slashes her face with his saber. When a woman holding her baby carriage is killed, she falls to the steps, and the carriage begins a precipitous decline--shots of the baby crying are intercut with wide shots of the carriage rolling down the steps. To Eisenstein, each individual shot contributed an energy within the editing track that yielded far more than the sum total of shots. In other words, the "combination" of shots through editing created a new entity, based on the expressive emotional energy unleashed through the editing process.




Emmigration


Morocco recently saw a migration of the population of cities and villages me especially in the last 50 years that happened Leone Morocco for independence. What are the reasons that drive housing villages to migrate to cities? And what are the causes of migrations out of the negative impact?
-There is a range of reasons why the villagers to the cities Tahgerh me among them lack even the most basic means necessary hospitals and transportation means Finding work Mestekareaulthossein circumstances of living .................. ect . The result eased the congestion entire towns and neighborhoods Baladi shanties and Tahera begging and the use of young children Resulting from the whole circumcision eased some tragic scenes
-Finally, I wish to state that changed everything in their power to stop the advance of the pious and out of control the situation .



Education


Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental goals the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). Education means 'to draw out', facilitating realisation of self-potential and latent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.
The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child's development.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Albert Einstein's admonition to "never let school interfere with your education"). Family members may have a profound educational effect — often more profound than they realize — though family teaching may function very informally
. our food.
In conclusion, these problems are growing daily because people don't want to change their lifestyle. People need to be educated so they will stop damaging our planet.
Furthermore,governments should take actions to prevent individuals and companies from harming their environment .

 



Terrorism


Terrorism is a term used to describe violence or other harmful acts. Terrorism expert Walter Laqueur in 1999 has counted over 100 definitions and concludes that the "only general characteristic generally agreed upon is that terrorism involves violence and the threat of violence". Most definitions of terrorism include only those acts which are intended to create fear or "terror", are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a "madman" attack), and deliberately target "non-combatants".
As a form of unconventional warfare, terrorism is sometimes used when attempting to force political change by: convincing a government or population to agree to demands to avoid future harm or fear of harm, destabilization of an existing government, motivating a disgruntled population to join an uprising, escalating a conflict in the hopes of disrupting the status quo, expressing a grievance, or drawing attention to a cause.
The terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" (someone who engages in terrorism) carry a strong negative connotation. These terms are often used as political labels to condemn violence or threat of violence by certain actors as immoral, indiscriminate, or unjustified. Those labeled "terrorists" rarely identify themselves as such, and typically use other generic terms or terms specific to their situation, such as: separatist, freedom fighter, liberator, revolutionary, vigilante, militant, paramilitary, guerrilla, rebel, jihadi or mujaheddin, or fedayeen, or any similar-meaning word in other languages.
Terrorism has been used by a broad array of political organizations in furthering their objectives; both right-wing and left-wing political parties, nationalistic, and religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling governments.[1] The presence of non-state actors in widespread armed conflict has created controversy regarding the application of the laws of war.
An International Roundtable on Constructing Peace, Deconstructing Terror (2004) hosted by Strategic Foresight Group recommended that a distinction should be made between terrorism and acts of terror. While acts of terror are criminal acts as per the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 and domestic jurisprudence of almost all countries in the world, terrorism refers to a phenomenon including acts, perpetrators of acts of terror and motives of the perpetrators. There is a disagreement on definition of terrorism. However, there is an intellectual consensus globally that acts of terror should not be accepted under any circumstances. This is reflected in all important conventions including the United Nations counter terrorism strategy, outcome of the Madrid Conference on terrorism and outcome of the Strategic Foresight Group and ALDE roundtables at the European Parliament .




Leisure time


Recreation is very important for one health whoever we are we need leisure activities because they enable us our minds and bodies
If we go on working without a break we'll get bord and exchasted
Therfore we should spend our free time on the things we like doing much as listing to music and pratising sport in this way we'll have energy to rasume our studies and warking
OK sany I PPRESENT TO YOU THIS OBJECT OF THE HOW CAN AIR POLLUTION HURT MY HEALTH
air pollution can effect our health in many ways with a both short-term effects different groups of individuals are effected by air pollution in different ways .some individualsare much more sensitive to pollutants than are others. young children and elderly people after suffer môre from effects of air pollution.poeple with health problems such asthma .heart and lung disease may olso suffer more when the air is poolluted the extent to wich in individual is harmed by air pollution usualy depends on the total to the damaging chimicals i.e the duration of exposure and the concentration of the chimicals must be taken into account..this s the end of pragraph i wish to benefit it ok .



Racism


Racism or racialism is a form of race, especially the belief that one race is superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races.
In the 19th century many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through scientific theories about biological differences among races. Today, most scientists have rejected the biological basis of race or the validity of "race" as a scientific concept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination based on alleged race. Racists themselves usually do believe that humans are divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states that racism is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other - newer - one states that racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion or culture.




Women working


There have been a lot of chages in our social life in the last decades .many more women working ,of course ,has the lifestyle of many families
Many people are worried whether a carrer women can properly care for the children the advantage of women working
women and men are equal and should also have the right have a job
women should hlep in the devlopment of theircountry
carrer mot her are usually educated and so can help their family
the disadvantage of carrer women : women find ut difficult to take very good care of children while working out side they usually nturn home tired often a day 's work outside the also have to deal with the house work the are left with litter time to care for their childern .
thes affect a lot the whole family ,and may cause problems for children at schol ....e bc.
.finally i say that at taking good care children of women /mothers alonne
man/father should also share this responsibility with their wives
life is getting very expensive and women to help their family .



A drought


A drought is a prolonged, abnormally dry period when there is not enough water for users' normal needs. Drought is not simply low rainfall; if it was, much of inland Australia would be in almost perpetual drought. Because people use water in so many different ways, there is no universal definition of drought.
Meteorologists monitor the extent and severity of drought in terms of rainfall deficiencies. Agriculturalists rate the impact on primary industries, hydrologists compare ground water levels, and sociologists define it on social expectations and perceptions .



Television 2


nowdays .TV viewers have a wide choice of channels .more and more people have got satellite TV not all of them are satisfied with it .
satellite TV has both advantages and drawbaks . whats is de advantages and drawbaks of TV,?
-satellite TV brings the whole world into your home there a variety of programmes to choose fromit helps people improve foreigs languages and there are lots of entertaining ...educating programmes. You may not feel bored.
-and the drawbaks of satellite TV :
People spend too mush time watching TV and they become passive and lazy there are too many channels and it is often dificulet to choose the right programme and the people watch foreign TV channels and not their national TV .
Thy don't know what is happening in their country ,they might forget about their own culture and problem
Children don't do their homework ,don't read enough .
-satellite TV like any other technology is means to an end people should be selective and watch interesting programmes only.




Families


It's not necessarily a fact that small families are the best, but the fact that raising just one child is extremely expensive. There is the hospital bill, one must have good medical/dental (very expensive) for those toothaches, possible braces, fevers, scrapes, childhood diseases, not to mention the many shots children get during their younger years. There is clothing, food, a good home to live in, education and other hidden costs. Your child is better adjusted if they (a boy) are put into a sport at the age of 5 or 6, or if it's a girl, into dancing, etc., to keeping them off the streets and also give them insight as to what the future can hold for them. It costs many thousands of dollars to raise one child, and I use to know the stats on it, but it has since changed.
If a family can afford more than 2 children (good to have sibling) then they should go for it. I have known families during the 50s to 70s where there were 5 - 8 kids in a family and they were all well adjusted kids, not to mention the oldest child always ends up helping mom and pop out. Large families can be fun, but if you can't afford it this can cause a great deal of pressure on the parents and either shorten their life span or end in divorce. To have a large family you have to be well organized .




Languages


A language is a system used to facilitate communication among higher animals and/or computers. This article is about the fundamental features typically found in nearly all natural human languages. For information about artificial languages specifically for computers, please see instead machine code. Higher animals believed to employ audible language only, without symbols, include, but are not limited to, dolphins and whales. For information about this subject, please see "Animal communication" instead .



Minorities


A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. A sociological minority is not necessarily a numerical minority — it may include any group that is disadvantaged with respect to a dominant group in terms of social status, education, employment, wealth and political power. To avoid confusion, some writers prefer the terms "subordinate group" and "dominant group" rather than "minority" and "majority".

In socioeconomics, the term "minority" typically refers to a socially subordinate ethnic group (understood in terms of language, nationality, religion and/or culture). Other minority groups include people with disabilities, "economic minorities" (working poor or unemployed), "age minorities" (who are younger or older than a typical working age) and sexual minorities (whose sexual orientation or gender identity differs from the sociological norm).
The term "minority group" often occurs alongside a discourse of civil rights and collective rights which gained prominence in the 20th century. Members of minority groups are subject to differential treatment in the society in which they live. This discrimination may be directly based on an individual's perceived membership of a minority group, without consideration of that individual's personal achievement. It may also occur indirectly, due to social structures that are not equally accessible to all. Activists campaigning on a range of issues may use the language of minority rights, including student rights, consumer rights and animal rights. In recent years, some members of social groups traditionally perceived as dominant have attempted to present themselves as an oppressed minority, such as white, middle-class heterosexual males.
Studies have consistently shown a correlation between negative attitudes or prejudice toward minorities and social conservatism (as well as the converse, positive attitutes and social progressivism).[2] Minority groups in history, include Jews under Nazi Germany and African Americans in the Jim Crow period





English


World science is dominated today by a small number of languages, but English which is probably is the most popular global language of science and of modern technology that because many reason: first it is international language and the majority of country used it as their home language, In addition to that you can understand what happen in the world, in the other hand you can understand the new technology, moreover we see that the people that speak more than two language have a chance to get a better job than the other people who can speak just one. And also it is very important to student who want finish their Hight study in university.
Finally English will become more important in the future and more using in all things .




Leisure

  What i do in my free time ? Well, i like to exercise and sports, especially Karate. Just the same, i like to watch a football match or a good film sometimes.
Music- now that`s somethingi like as much as sport. I very often listen to music on the radio.but what i lke best is reading books on biology,chemistry and physics. These are my favourite subjects at school.what about friends? Ilike to be with them on Saturday.




Women


Millions of women throughout the world live in conditions of abject deprivation of, and attacks against, their fundamental human rights for no other reason than that they are women.
Combatants and their sympathizers in conflicts, such as those in Sierra Leone, Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan, and Rwanda, have raped women as a weapon of war with near complete impunity. Men in Pakistan, South Africa, Peru, Russia, and Uzbekistan beat women in the home at astounding rates, while these governments alternatively refuse to intervene to protect women and punish their batterers or do so haphazardly and in ways that make women feel culpable for the violence. As a direct result of inequalities found in their countries of origin, women from Ukraine, Moldova, Nigeria, the Dominican Republic, Burma, and Thailand are bought and sold, trafficked to work in forced prostitution, with insufficient government attention to protect their rights and punish the traffickers. In Guatemala, South Africa, and Mexico, women's ability to enter and remain in the work force is obstructed by private employers who use women's reproductive status to exclude them from work and by discriminatory employment laws or discriminatory enforcement of the law. In the U.S., students discriminate against and attack girls in school who are lesbian, bi-sexual, or transgendered, or do not conform to male standards of female behavior. Women in Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia face government-sponsored discrimination that renders them unequal before the law - including discriminatory family codes that take away women's legal authority and place it in the hands of male family members - and restricts women's participation in public life .




Internet

The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents of the world wide web.
The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to regain a technological lead.[1][2] ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution.
Licklider had moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.
At the IPTO, Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuit switching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called the ARPANET, one of the "eve" networks of today's Internet. Following on from this, the British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated to create the first international packet switched network, referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.
The first TCP/IP-wide area network was operational by January 1, 1983, when the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university network backbone that would later become the NSFNet.
It was then followed by the opening of the network to commercial interests in 1985. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the NSFNet include Usenet, BITNET and the various commercial and educational networks, such as X.25, Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately-funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network eventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existing communication networks, especially the international X.25 IPSS network, allowed for a great ease of growth. Use of the term "Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated around this time.


 


A revolution


A revolution (from Late Latin revolutio which means "a turn around") is a significant change that usually occurs in a relatively short period of time. Variously defined revolutions have been happening throughout human history. They vary in terms of numbers of their participants (revolutionaries), means employed by them, duration, motivating ideology and many other aspects. They may result in a socio-political change in the socio-political institutions, or a major change in a culture or economy. Scholarly debates about what is and what is not a revolution center around several issues. Early study of revolutions primarily analyzed events in European history from psychological perspective[citation needed], soon however new theories were offered using explanations for more global events and using works from other social sciences such as sociology and political sciences. Several generations of scholarly thought have generated many competing theories on revolutions, gradually increasing our understanding of this complex phenomenon
 


The discovery of the breast cancer generally occurs by chance: in fact modifications of the centre can encourage the women to consult a doctor. Sometimes, cancer is discovered with l’occasion d’examens of control. It is necessary to know early discovery increases the chances of cure. Complementary L’examen more the current is the mammography. But it n’est not always sufficient. One has then recourse to a taking away in order to carry out an examination under the microscope. In addition, the centres are very sensitive to the hormonal changes. During the first 2 weeks of the menstrual cycle, stimulation by the oestrogen causes the growth of the channels. During the 2 last weeks of the menstrual cycle, another hormone the progesterone causes the growth of the lobules what explains the congestion of the centres right before the menstruations. During the pregnancy, other hormonal changes prepare the centre for the production of milk. With the menopause, the production of oestrogen decreases and the glandular fabric is atrophied and is replaced by greasy fabric. Examine Your Breasts Every Month Beginning At Age 20 (see your doctor for self breast exam instructions). Check for: new lump (painful or not), unusual thickening of tissue, discharge from the nipples, change in the skin of nipples or breasts, or different breast size or shape than before. Have Your Doctor Examine Your Breasts Every Year Or Two Beginning At Age 30 Have A Mammogram Every Year After Age 40 


brain drain 
A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals ("human capital") to other nations due to conflicts, lack of opportunity, health hazards where they are living or other reasons. It parallels the term "capital flight" which refers to financial capital that is no longer invested in the country where its owner lived and earned it.
Investment in higher education is lost when a trained individual leaves and does not return. Also, whatever social capital the individual has been a part of is reduced by his or her departure. Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad and complete their education do not return to their home country, or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities. The second form is arguably worse, because it drains more resources from the home country.
This phenomenon is perhaps most problematic for developing nations, where it is widespread. In these countries, higher education and professional certification are often viewed as the surest way to escape from a troubled economy or difficult political situation.Even though little has been discussed about the effects of brain drain in Africa, it is believed to be one of the biggest issues to the developing nations. Each year millions of Africans escape to Europe and the states; therefore, the continent is using lot of its human capital
To conclude, I believe that brain drain is a major problem that our continent has to face up to. It is obvious that developing countries such as Morocco are even losing more human capital than developed countries



right of women
Nowadays we take it for
granted that womenhave the same rights as men before the first world war few people believedthis.
As far as work was concerned there were jobs wich were regarded aswomen`s jobs and other wiche were regarded as men`s jobs. Women`s jobs weregenerally lower paid as men`s. Men did almost all the heavy jobs in industry orin transport
.
Women had jobs like dress-making,cleanning or worked asservants
.
Women`s main role was as being to raise childeren and look fortheir home. Women were not expected to take position of leaderschip. Women werenot even allowed to vote in elections
.
Before the war some women had beenstruggling to achieve greater equality with men. The most famous of these hadbeen the suffragettes who stagged a violent campaign against the govervment from 1905 to 1914 trying to achieve the right to vote.however, at the outbreak ofwar, the were still no near to success. Many men argued that women were unsuitedto such responsibility that women could not be trusted to vote sensibly thatwomen should not concern themselves with such male activities andvoting
.
During the war many things changed


الأولى personal values القيم الشخصية

Personal values are one of the most important things in our life. This Life as we know it now wouldn’t be possible without personal values that regulate it. Indeed, the more values a person has the more respect and admiration she/he gets. For instance, people who value hard-work often end up being the most successful. I have never known a person who works hard and never succeeds in life. Likewise, honesty is another value that is key to success in life. Honest people earn the trust and reliability of others. They are valued for their honesty and truthfulness. Undoubtedly, there is nothing more rewarding than knowing people with such values as honesty and hard-work. With these people one can establish fruitful relationships that are to the advantage of everyone. True to say, honesty and hard-work are two cornerstones for a good and successful life.


موضوع أطول عن personal values


One of the major issues that has been the subject matter of many discussions these days is the importance of personal values in our life. Some people think that personal values are not as vital to life as the need to earn a living. These people value, above all, success in life regardless of the means. In my view, personal values are the cornerstone for any enduring and promising life. These personal values, as I see them, play determining roles in the way we view the world and how the others view us.

To begin with, personal values are essential to our life. One point in favour of this is that people who value personal values and implement them in their life usually have the friendship and trust of other people. To illustrate to this, take a person who values honesty and applies that in his/her life, people would
trust him/her and be willing to maintain a good relationship with him/her. I personally like honest people and think they can make good headways in their lives thanks to their honesty. In addition, honesty ensures self-esteem and pride of oneself. Since I have known honest people in my life, they always show realistic and respected self-respect. Even as a kid, I never felt right to lie to someone. Moreover, I never like other people to lie to me. Another fundamental value in life is hard-work. I strongly believe that people who work are very likely to reap the fruits of their work. As the American saying goes: hard-work pays off. Indeed, hard work is the lifeblood of a successful life.

To conclude, and as the previously mentioned examples and cases show, honesty and hard-work stand as two major personal values without which life would be the thing we see now. Successful nations have worked hard and enough to develop. Now they are making headways into their future. Likewise, honest people keep the secret of success in life. With their honesty they are making strides to a more rewarding life.




كتابة
Letter of complaint

رسالة تشكي حول شيء اشتريته ووجدت به خلل

24 Rotterdam, Hauges Avenue
12 streets Harlem
Holland
20/11/2007



Mr Fred, manager of youth school
Magazine, industry Road Amsterdam





Dear sir or Madam,
I am a keen reader of the local school magazine « spotlight » and
I have been impressed by a number of articles I read there. Today I take the chance to write you an article about a worrying school phenomenon; namely, smoking.
To start with and as far as I am concerned there are predisposing factors that lead some students to take up smoking. I mean here that certain conditions in their lives make it more likely for these students to smoke. Socially, students who take up smoking usually come from poor families or working ones that do not have the time to supervise their children after school. Besides that, students are heavily influenced by the others who smoke. As they see their peers smoking, they can’t help giving it a try. Undoubtedly, the family structures and backgrounds and the social surrounding play a determining role in this fact.
Academically, students who do poorly in school are known to be taking up smoking more than any others. The school frustrations and the feeling of an inability to keep up with the rest of the class push some students to do irresponsible deeds.
It goes without saying that smoking has a negative impact on every addict. Among young people, the short-term health effects of smoking include damage to the respiratory system, addiction to nicotine, and the associated risk of other drug use. Long-term health consequences of youth smoking are reinforced by the fact that most young people who smoke regularly continue to smoke throughout adulthood. Therefore, they become vulnerable to many illnesses, such as cancer.

To conclude, smoking is a major youth problem that needs the help and the contribution of everyone of us to try to limit this bad habit. Indeed, it is imperative that each and every one of us take a step towards informing and sensitizing our youth of the dangers of smoking. By way of this same contribution I have been glad to write you these lines to state my stand in your promising magazine


Yours Anuarmadridista

Gender and racial descrimination


الميز ضد المرأة من الوحدة women and power


In all our history, we all believe that man was born free and he deserves to stay so for the rest of his/her life. It goes without saying that men equally deserve to have the same rights and respect from others. However, in the complex world that we live in, there are many problems and conflicts that make us think of some as less worthy of respect than others.


To start with, man is the creation of God and therefore he/she is free to act and react in this worldly life. There is nothing and no one that should limit or diminish his/her rights to be free and respected. With that said, we still can see that there are much gender and racial discrimination almost everywhere. Women, in all our history has been suffering from discrimination and marginalization by men. In the past women were buried alive, burned at the death of their husbands and were slaves to a man. Racially, black in America and almost everywhere were discriminated against and had no rights at all. They were working in plantations as slaves and were denied a marriage with a white person. Of course, I always think that our history is full of shameful events that show just how cruel and oppressive some people were.
To reverse this image of inequality and oppression, non-governmental organizations have been doing all they can to protect women’s rights as well as ensure racial rights for immigrants and workers. So far, the efforts have been successful but haven’t stopped discrimination against minorities and women, in particular, in many countries. Violence and denial of a woman’s right to work and participate in public life is still not achieved in some conservative countries.

Finally, and as far as I am concerned, all individuals must take part in this campaign to call for equal rights and respect for everyone. It is with respect to the other and the abolishing of oppression that we can ensure a better, just and fair world to live in






موضوعين حول هجرة الأدمغة
Brain Drain

إحتمال كبير لتقع في الوطني و الله أعلم

الموضوع الأول

A brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals ("human capital") to other nations due to conflicts, lack of opportunity, health hazards where they are living or other reasons. It parallels the term "capital flight" which refers to financial capital that is no longer invested in the country where its owner lived and earned it.
Investment in higher education is lost when a trained individual leaves and does not return. Also, whatever social capital the individual has been a part of is reduced by his or her departure. Brain drain can occur either when individuals who study abroad and complete their education do not return to their home country, or when individuals educated in their home country emigrate for higher wages or better opportunities. The second form is arguably worse, because it drains more resources from the home country.
This phenomenon is perhaps most problematic for developing nations, where it is widespread. In these countries, higher education and professional certification are often viewed as the surest way to escape from a troubled economy or difficult political situation.Even though little has been discussed about the effects of brain drain in Africa, it is believed to be one of the biggest issues to the developing nations. Each year millions of Africans escape to Europe and the states; therefore, the continent is using lot of its human capital
To conclude, I believe that brain drain is a major problem that our continent has to face up to. It is obvious that developing countries such as Morocco are even losing more human capital than developed countries.


الموضوع الثاني
Brain drain is the departure of educated or talented persons for better pay or jobs elsewhere. The term originated about 1960, when many British scientists and intellectuals immigrated to the United States for a better working climate.
Economically speaking, brain drain means an emigration of trained and talented individuals ("human capital") to other nations because of conflicts and lack of opportunity. It parallels the term "capital flight" which refers to financial capital that is no longer invested in the country where its owner lived and earned it.
When a highly qualified professional chooses to leave his own country for another, he does so for one or several legitimate political or economic reasons: peace and security for himself and his family, job satisfaction, better pay and conditions, a higher standard of living, etc. Throughout history, countries and centres of academic excellence which offer these attractions have received the largest numbers of professional migrants and these have, in turn, made substantial contributions, not only to the economic growth of their host countries, but also to the scientific and technological advancement of humanity.The loss of such bog number of skilled immigrants results in huge losses that are very difficult to compensate for even in long years to come. The brain drain is actually affecting the economies and social structures of a country, especially the emerging countries that have to do everything they can to stop this phenomenon.
Finally, I do believe that it is the responsibility of both governments and individuals to try harder to stop the flow of highly skilled people from their own countries resulting in a brain drain that affects each and every society.

Advances in technology


Technology is a broad concept that deals with a people’s usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects man’s ability to control and adapt to its environment. In human society, technology is a consequence of science and engineering. In the last two centuries, humanity has witnessed great technological developments that are not to be paralleled with any other past times in history. These technological advances range from the invention of the light bulb to the latest wireless computers and internet devices. But what are the implications of these technological advances on our societies.

To begin with, technological advances have helped people use tools and materials that made life easier for them. To give one example, the use of the phone and the internet has made it extremely possible to communicate with any person on any other part of the world. So, the limitations in communication that we had in the past are all over by now. Academically speaking, students no longer rely today entirely on books to look for the information they need to do a research. Rather they are invited now to search the internet and get ready-made information that saves both time and effort. Spatially speaking, people managed to set their foot on the moon and discover things that were in the past only myths for many of us.

However technological advances have had also their negative sides. To illustrate to that, internet use has made the gap even greater between those who have access to it and those who don’t. Let us remember that there are those who can’t have yet access even to electricity to use all those technological advances which seem to be made mainly for those who have the means to buy it. The advances in telecommunication have also made people more selfish in the sense that everyone now has his/her mobile phone; and we no longer have family conversations or calls for the whole family. Every one holds private conversations on the phone that other can’t know about. For all these reasons, I believe that one has to look at the other side of the coin and believe that technological development is double-edged.

To conclude, and as far as I am concerned, technological advances are a major step in the development of nations and societies and it is imperative to make good use of those developments and make it accessible to all individuals in the world.


موضوع
Stereotypes
الأفكار الشائعة

A stereotype is a preconceived, simplistic de--xx--ion of all members of a given group that leads to having certain expectations, often inaccurate and prejudicial, about members of that group without regard to individual differences. Many people believe in many stereotypes unknowingly. These people hold these stereotypes as the truth. Usually these stereotypes are about persons who are members of groups with which they have not had firsthand contact. They regularly make these stereotypical generalizations based on experiences that have had seen in movies or television, read about in books and magazines, talked to them by family and friends. Other people, though, argue that Stereotypes are basically generalizations that are made about groups. Such generalizations are necessary: in order to be able to interact effectively, we must have some idea of what people are likely to be like, which behaviors will be considered acceptable, and which not. In this essay, will shed more lights on this phenomenon showing its negative (or positive) impact through examples and cases.
To start off, although Stereotypes are only generalizations or assumptions that people make about the characteristics of all members of a group, they are sometime true in real terms. To give one example many people believe that the saying that women are bad drivers is just a stereotype, yet the conduct of many women drivers on the road proves some truth about this stereotype. Likewise, stereotypes about Americans reveal that they are generally considered to be friendly, generous, and tolerant, but also arrogant. Clearly, not all Americans are generous or arrogant, but according to many studies there a big number of Americans who bear these traits. This way, if stereotypes are not totally true, they at least can hold some of it and therefore can help us to foresee other people and prepare for our interaction with them.
Nevertheless, one has to look at the other side of the coin, Stereotypes can have excessive damage and can have a very negative effect on the person in view or as a whole group. Stereotyping is not just another form of making fun of people; it also encourages rejection and outcast. Stereotyping is not only cruel and harmful to people, it can also have major effects on how a person behaves and acts towards other people. It also makes who ever is stereotyping look like a fool. It also forms barriers in communication and everyday life.





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